Die casting is a widely used metal casting process, applied in various of industires, including automotive, digital, home appliances, ect. This article would introduce die casting, its processes, using materials, pros and cons of die casting, and so on.
What is Die Casting?
Die casting is a metal casting process. Its feature uses a mold cavity to apply high pressure to the molten metal. Depending on the different types of die casting, it needs a cold chamber die casting machine, or a hot chamber die casting machine to use.
Die casting is the most widely used of the various casting processes. It has significant advantages and is suitable for making large numbers of minor to medium-sized die casting products, with cost savings, not only in the price of the part itself but also in overall production costs. Compared to other metal techniques, die casting provides a flatter surface and has a higher degree of dimensional consistency.
Die Cating Processes
The die casting process is generally with 2 types, hot chamber die casting and cold chamber die casting. Using different materials and different process characteristics apply to different applications.
Hot Chamber Die Casting
The metal pool in the hot chamber die casting machine is liquid and semi-liquid metal in the molten state, and these metals fill the mold under pressure. The advantages of the hot chamber die casting production process is easy to operate, high efficiency, less metal consumption, and a stable process. The hot chamber die casting process mostly used zinc, magnesium alloys, and other low melting point metals. It’s not suitable for alloys with higher melting points because it can damage the pump, which comes into direct contact with the metal.
Cold Chamber Die Casting
Cold chamber die casting, where the metal is liquefied, and the liquid metal is poured from the holding furnace into the chamber for die casting, is more suitable for metals with higher melting points, such as aluminum and copper.
Die Casting Materials
Most of the alloys materials used in die casting are non-ferrous and have strong mechanical properties. The choice of alloys for a particular application depends on budget, weight and material properties. The die casting materials suitable for almost any types of application to manufacturing, choosing the die casting alloys can be referenced as follows:
Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys
Aluminum characteristics: lightweight, high dimensional stability in manufacturing thin-walled castings, high corrosion resistance, better mechanical properties, high thermal conductivity, and electrical conductivity, and high strength at high temperatures. It is suitable for manufacturing various products, among which aluminum A380 is the most common material in die casting.
Zinc and Zinc Alloys
The easiest metal-to-die casting, cost-effective when making small parts, easy to coat, and has high compressive strength, plasticity, and long-lasting life. Common die-cast zinc materials are Zamak #2, #3, #5, #7, ZA8 and ZA27, etc.
High hardness, high corrosion resistance, wear resistance, strength close to steel. Lower melting temperature. Parts and products can be rapidly formed in large quantities.
Apllications in Die Casting
Die casting is mainly used for mass production and produces many of the same die casting parts. Die casting applications in the automotive industry are most commonly used in die-cast parts. Die castings are widely used in non-structural parts such as engines (cylinder blocks, cylinder heads, intake pipes, etc.), transmission cases, wheels, etc. Refer to the chart; you can see examples of aluminum alloys used in automotive die casting applications.
Aluminum Alloys Die Casting in Automotive
Cylinder block, cylinder block cover, cylinder head cover, crankcase, cylinder head cover, oil pan, piston, pump body, engine gear chamber, engine case, engine mounts, etc.
Transmission housing, transmission oil circuit plate, clutch housing, transmission bracket, etc.
Chain cover, rack housing and turbine housing,etc.
Wheels, suspension brackets, crossmember,etc.
Flange, piston, brake pedal,etc.
Covering parts (hood, doors, etc.), bumper brackets, shock tower covers, cross and longitudinal beams, interior parts, etc.
Heat exchangers, heat shields, etc.
In addition, there are other industries that use die castings：
Die Casting Pros and Cons
Pros of Die Casting
Cons of Die Casting
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