The 24 Commonly Used Metal Materials and their Characteristics

More than a hundred kinds of materials can be used for mold processing, such as metal, plastic, inorganic non-metal, paraffin, etc. However, the use of each material and the demand vary according to the actual needs. Today, we will talk about the most commonly used 24 kinds of metal materials for mold processing.

1. 45 – high-quality carbon structural steel is the most commonly used medium carbon tempered steel. Main features: the most commonly used medium carbon tempered steel, good overall mechanical properties, low hardenability, easy to produce cracks when water quenching. Small parts should be tempered, and large parts should be normalized.

Application examples: mainly used in manufacturing high-strength moving parts, such as turbine impellers, compressor pistons, shafts, gears, racks, and worm gears. The welded parts should be preheated before welding and stress relieved, and annealed after welding.

2.Q235A (A3 steel) – the most commonly used carbon structural steel

Main features: high plasticity, toughness and welding properties, cold stamping properties of individual strength, and good cold bending properties. Application examples: widely used for general requirements of the parts and welded structures. Tension rods, connecting rods, pins, shafts, screws, nuts, collars, brackets, machine bases, building structures and bridges, etc., are not subject to large forces.

3.40Cr – one of the most widely used steel grades, is a structural alloy steel

Main features: after tempering treatment, it has good overall mechanical properties, low-temperature impact toughness, low-notch sensitivity, and good hardenability; oil cooling can be obtained when the fatigue strength of high, water-cooled parts of complex shapes is prone to cracking. Cold bending plasticity is medium, tempering, or tempering after good machinability. Still, the weldability is not good, and it is prone to cracking. It should be preheated to 100 ℃ ~ 150 ℃ before welding, generally used in the tempered state, but also for carbonitriding and high-frequency surface quenching treatment.

Application examples: after tempering for the manufacture of medium-speed, medium-load parts, such as machine tool gears, shafts, worm gears, spline shafts, and ejector sleeves; tempering and high-frequency surface quenching for the manufacture of high surface hardness, wear-resistant parts, such as gears, shafts, spindles, crankshafts, mandrels, sleeves, pins, connecting rods, screws, and nuts, intake valves, etc.; after quenching and medium-temperature tempering for the manufacture of heavy-duty, medium-speed impact parts, such as oil pumps Rotors, sliders, gears, spindles, and rings, etc.; quenched and low-temperature tempered for the manufacture of heavy-duty, low-impact, wear-resistant parts, such as worm shafts, spindles, shafts and rings, etc.; carbonitriding treatment for the manufacture of larger size, low-temperature impact toughness of transmission parts, such as shafts, gears, etc.

4.HT150–Grey cast iron

Application examples: gearbox body, machine tool bed, box, hydraulic cylinder, pump body, valve body, flywheel, cylinder head, belt wheel, and bearing cover, etc.

5.35–Common materials for various standard parts and fasteners
Main features: appropriate strength, good plasticity, high cold plasticity, and weldability are still possible. The unconscious state can be locally upsetting and drawing. Low hardenability, normalized or tempered for use.
Application examples: suitable for manufacturing small cross-sections, can withstand large loads of parts, such as crankshaft, lever, connecting rod, hook and loop, a variety of standard parts, and fasteners.


6.65Mn – commonly used spring steel

Application examples: small size of a variety of flat, round springs, seat springs, and spring clocks, can also be made spring rings, valve springs, clutch reeds, brake springs, cold rolled coil springs, and card springs.

7.0Cr18Ni9 – the most commonly used stainless steel (U.S. steel number 304, Japanese steel number SUS304)

Features and applications: heat-resistant stainless steel is most widely used, such as equipment for food, general chemical equipment, etc.

8.Cr12 – commonly used cold work tool steel (U.S. steel number D3, Japanese steel SKD1)

Characteristics and applications: Cr12 steel is a widely used cold work die steel, a high-carbon, high-chromium type of Leithite steel. The steel has good hardenability and good wear resistance; because of Cr12 steel carbon content of up to 2.3%, so the impact toughness is poor, easy to brittle crack, and easy to forms uneven eutectic carbide; Cr12 steel because of good wear resistance, mostly used in the manufacture of impact load requires high wear resistance of cold punching die, punch, undercut die, cold heading dies, cold extrusion die punch and concave die, drill sleeve, gauge DC53 is used in the manufacture of cold punching dies, punches, downfeed dies, cold heading dies, punches and concave dies of cold extrusion dies, drill sets, gauges, drawing dies, embossing dies, thread rolling plates, deep drawing dies, and cold pressing dies for powder metallurgy.

9.DC53 – commonly used Japanese imported cold work die steel

Characteristics and applications: high toughness cold work die steel, Japan Daido special steel (Co.) manufacturers steel. After high-temperature tempering with high hardness, toughness, and good wire-cutting properties. Used for precision cold stamping die, drawing die, thread rolling die, cold punching and cutting die, and punch, etc.

10.DCCr12MoV–Abrasion-resistant chromium steel

Domestic production has lower carbon content than Cr12 steel, and with the addition of Mo and V, carbide unevenness has improved; Mo can reduce carbide segregation and improve hardenability, and V can refine the grain to increase toughness. This steel has high hardenability; cross-sections below 400mm can be completely hardened, but 300 ~ 400 ℃ can maintain good hardness and wear resistance. It has higher toughness than Cr12. Small volume change during quenching. Also has high wear resistance and good overall mechanical properties. So it can be manufactured with a large cross-section and complex shape and withstand the large impact of various molds, such as ordinary tensile die, punching concave die, punching dies, drop die, cutting edge die, rolling edge dies, wire drawing dies, cold extrusion dies, cold cutting scissors, circular saw, standard tools, and gauges, etc.

11.SKD11–Toughness chrome steel

Produced by Hitachi, Ltd. in Japan. Technically improving the casting organization in the steel, refining the grain, compared with Cr12MoV toughness and wear resistance has improved, extending the service life of the mold.

12.D2–High carbon and high chromium cold work steel

U.S. production. High hardenability, hardenability, wear resistance, high-temperature oxidation resistance, and quenching and polishing resistance to rust and corrosion are good. Small heat treatment deformation. Suitable for manufacturing various requirements for high precision, long life of hard work tooling, tools, and gauges, such as tensile die, cold extrusion die and cold shear knife, etc.

13.SKD11 (SLD) – no deformation toughness high chromium steel

Hitachi, Ltd. of Japan production. Due to the increase of Mo, V content in the steel, improved steel casting organization, refined grain, and improved carbide morphology, the steel toughness (flexural strength, deflection, impact toughness, etc.) than SKD1, D2 high, wear resistance has also increased and has a higher tempering resistance. The practice has proved that this steel mold life than Cr12MoV has improved. Often manufacture high requirements of the mold, such as tensile mold, impact grinding wheel piece of mold.

14.DC53–high toughness, high chromium steel

Japan Daido Corporation production. Heat treatment hardness is higher than SKD11. high temperature (520 ~ 530) ℃ tempering up to 62 ~ 63HRC high hardness. In strength and wear resistance, DC53 exceeds SKD11, and toughness is twice as much as SKD11. DC53 toughness in cold work mold manufacturing rarely cracks and crazing, greatly improving the service life. The residual stress is small and reduced by turning back at high temperatures. Because the cracks and deformation are suppressed after wire-cutting processing, the machinability and grind ability exceed SKD11. It is used for precision stamping dies, cold forging and deep drawing dies, etc.

15.SKH-9–Abrasion resistance, the toughness of general-purpose high-speed steel

Produced by Hitachi, Ltd. in Japan. Used for cold forging dies, strip cutters, drills, reamers, punches, etc.

16.ASP-23–Powder metallurgical high-speed steel

Made in Sweden. Carbide distribution is uniform, wear resistance, high toughness, easy processing, and dimensional stability heat treatment. Used for punch, deep drawing die, drilling die, milling cutter and shear blade, and other types of long-life cutting tools.

17.P20–general requirements of the size of the plastic mold

Made in the United States. It can be an electro-etching operation. Factory state pre-hardened HB270~300, quenched hardness HRC52.

18.718–High requirements of the size of plastic molds

Made in Sweden. Electro-etching operation is possible. Factory condition pre-hardened HB290~330, quenching hardness HRC52.

19.Nak80–high mirror surface, high precision plastic mold

Japan Daido Co. Factory state pre-hardened HB370~400, quenching hardness HRC52.

20.S136—Corrosion prevention and mirror polishing plastic mold

Swedish production. Factory state pre-hardened HB <215, quenching hardness HRC52.

21.H13–Commonly used die-casting mold

Used for aluminum, zinc, magnesium, alloy die-casting, hot stamping die, aluminum extrusion dies, etc.

22.SKD61–Advanced die-casting die

Produced by Hitachi, Ltd. in Japan. By electro, slag remelting technology significantly improves service life more than H13. Used in hot stamping die and aluminum extrusion die.

23.8407–Senior die casting die

Made in Sweden. Used in hot stamping die and aluminum extrusion die.

24.FDAC–Added sulfur to enhance its ease of cutting.


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