How to Improve Die Casting Design Process and Die Casting Process

mold design

Pressure casting is an important molding process for forming non-ferrous metal structural parts, using a die-casting machine to fill the die cavity with metal liquid under high pressure and high speed and solidify the metal die casting. Die casting die is an important equipment for pressure casting. The manufacturing industry introduced die casting die engaged in forming non-ferrous metal structural parts, reducing the cost of investment in enterprise production and significantly improving the production efficiency of other processes. Over the years, die-casting die failures have occurred during production operations, affecting the efficiency of the entire production line and disrupting the normal production order. The paper describes the improvement measures for the die casting mold design process and die casting process problems in terms of mold failure factors. 

Table of Contents

Forms of die-casting mold failure and adverse effects

Pressure casting has become an important production process in the machinery manufacturing industry, and many companies have begun to adopt the necessary production solutions for this advanced process to meet the needs of daily production and processing. However, from a practical point of view, there are still many deficiencies in die casting molds, which affect the normal processing of mechanical products. Die failure is the most common problem in die casting, which reduces the typical production schedule and affects the delivery cycle. The main forms of die casting die failure include. 

( 1 ) Fatigue factor

The mold needs to bear a large clamping force when die casting. This will allow the mold parting surface to fit closely, but a long time to produce force on the mold, will thus cause different degrees of deformation inside the mold. Damage to the mold steel structure, such as thermal fatigue cracking damage is one of the more common forms of the problem, which is caused by the continuous hot and cold changes in the mold, while the impact of mechanical stresses also accelerates the appearance of cracks. For this problem, die-casting mold design with high performance mold materials, so as to reduce the degree of fatigue damage of the mold. 

( 2 ) Fracture factor

Die local brittle fracture and crack expansion are caused to the mold’s great destructive effect. In addition, the mold material strength performance, deformation performance, etc., can not meet the requirements, as the impact of external forces will also occur under shattering conditions. Die-casting process engineers choose the right parameters, which can delay the brittle fracture and the expansion of cracks. Mold designers should analyze the die-casting mold force situation and take special measures for special force. 

( 3 ) Dissolution factor

The metal material has instability factor, often with other materials chemical reaction, thus promoting the transformation of the material properties. Dissolution corrosion phenomenon is also a major cause of mold failure. More common die-casting alloy including zinc alloy, aluminum alloy, magnesium alloy, etc., these metal elements and other elements in specific conditions produce chemical reactions. Solutions to such problems: the surface of the mold can be nitriding treatment to improve the hardness and wear resistance of the mold surface; can also change the feeding direction to avoid direct punching cavity surface.

The specific process of modern die casting mold design

The die casting mold is an important piece of equipment for pressure casting and is the core part of pressure casting. Enterprises in the preparation of the design process should be its scientific planning. The author combined their work experience and came up with a set of relatively complete processes as follows:

 ( 1 ) Organize information

Collect original information about die casting ( 2D drawings, 3D models, customer requirements, etc.); fully understand the die casting drawings’ technical requirements, main functions, and assembly relationships to grasp the company’s production capacity, technical level, and existing equipment.

( 2 ) Analysis of die castings: analyze the processability of the die casting

Analyze the material, structure, dimensional accuracy, and internal quality of the die casting; check whether the 2D drawing and 3D model are consistent. For some unsuitable die casting and unnecessary structure forms (some die casting structure form complex resulting in complex mold structure), it should be proposed to the customer or die casting designer. In this way, under the condition of satisfying the customer, it can make the die casting more conducive to molding, and mold structure is simplified. 

( 3 ) Sketch the assembly of the mold and choose the solution

Draw up several feasible general solutions and sketch the assembly. Try to use a 1:1 scale to draw, preliminary estimation of the mold cost of each option is reasonable. Perform mold flow analysis for each option to get a preliminary understanding of the molding sequence and internal defects. Convene several departments. Invite die-casting production masters, mold makers, and other people with practical experience. Discuss the customer’s needs, company costs, technology, etc. Select the best solution. And make the necessary modifications. 

( 4 ) Draw the parts and improve the assembly sketch

The drawing of the main parts is also a self-check of the assembly sketch, and any problems found in the assembly sketch should be corrected and supplemented in time. The sketch will eventually form the mold assembly drawing after continuous improvement. After that, all the rest of the drawings are drawn. 

( 5 ) Proofreading and review of mold drawings. In the time of drawing

There are always mistakes and miscalculations, so after drawing the drawings, be sure to proofread and audit. Even a small part of the drawing, in order to reduce the error rate of the drawing . Do not delay the process of mold making.

( 6 ) Contact the site

The mold designer should follow up on the process of mold making and trial and change the mistakes and little places in the design in time.

( 7 ) Conclusion

After the production of small quantities, the mold should be carefully reviewed and summarized, such as whether it can improve the mold’s difficulty, whether it can simplify the structure of the mold, whether the efficiency of die-casting needs to be improved, etc. More summaries not only accumulate experience for the designers but also improve the company’s technical level. Also, the development of the prepared mold and the future of other die-casting mold designs and production provide a reference for the company’s technical level to improve the grade. 

Considerations for improving the die casting process

The die casting process is the organic combination of three elements: die casting machine, die casting mold, and die casting alloy, and the process of extensive use. Therefore, the die-casting process engineer plays a vital role in the production site. In addition to developing the correct die-casting process and revising the process according to the change in production elements, he is also responsible for training mold installation and adjustment workers, die-casting operators, and mold maintenance workers. To improve the quality level of die-casting production, technical personnel should develop a scientific die-casting process program to ensure that the quality of die-castings improves. 

( 1 ) To determine the die-casting parameters

Under the premise of ensuring that the die casting meets the customer, the die casting speed, die casting force and should adjust alloy temperature to the minimum. Selecting good die casting speed, die injection force, die temperature, alloy temperature, etc., is conducive to reducing the load of the die casting machine and die casting die failure, improving the life and saving the company cost. 

( 2 ) The use of coatings

 The die casting process must develop transformation in a strict detail coating process. Such as the composition of the paint and the ratio of paint to water. The amount (or time) and coating sequence for each mold part. Compressed air pressure is the distance between the spray gun and the molded surface. Spraying direction and the angle of the molding surface, etc.

( 3 ) Determine the cooling scheme

However, the mold has been made cooling water channel, according to the actual situation of die-casting cooling water channel selection, to determine a reasonable cooling scheme. A reasonable mold cooling scheme greatly impacts production efficiency, casting quality, and mold life. The program should provide cooling water distribution, die-casting several die times to start cooling and several die times apart to open the cooling water to the prescribed flow. 

( 4 ) Control lubrication frequency

Provide for different sliding parts, such as punches, guide pillars, guide bushings, core extraction mechanism, push rod, reset rod and other parts of the different lubrication frequencies. According to the complexity of the die and the degree of newness, determine the appropriate preventive maintenance cycle of the die shirt. The appropriate preventive maintenance cycle should be the number of die casting die failures that will occur in using the die but not yet. 


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