An Overview of Die Casting Mold

diecast tooling

An important part of the die casting process is the die casting mold. The die’s shape and characteristics affect the final product’s precision and uniformity. Die casting dies to utilize aluminum and zinc alloys to produce small to large quantities of identical castings to meet your manufacturing needs and can produce many small to medium-sized castings.

Therefore, it is essential to know about die casting dies which will help you to design and select the correct die for your die casting project.

In this article, you will learn more about the role of die casting moulds in production, the basic structure of moulds, the design process and the points to note. You will also learn how to design a mold and the factors to consider when making a die casting mold. Contact V1Diecast for more information about our custom die casting molds or request a quote today.

Table of Contents

The Role of Die Casting Mold Production

Die casting mold is important to process equipment in die casting production. It can play a significant role in the smooth production and the quality of the castings, including:
(1) Determine the casting shape and size tolerance level.
(2) Pouring system determines the filling condition of molten metal.
(3) Control and regulation of the heat balance of the die casting process.
(4) The mould’s strength limits the die casting’s maximum specific pressure.
(5) Affects the productivity of die-casting production.

The Basic Structure of Die Casting Mold

Commonly used die casting die has two half-die compositions, fixed die and dynamic die. There are also more complex die-casting moulds, more than two half-die.
The components of a die casting mold are shown in the picture:

The roles of the components of the die casting mold are as follows:

(1) Straight sprue Connects the pressure chamber or to the cross sprue, including the gate sleeve and the diversion cone.
(2) Pouring system: The channel for the alloy liquid to enter the cavity, including the inner sprue, cross sprue, straight sprue, etc.
(3) Cavity formed on the insert, forming the geometry of the die casting.
(4) Core extracting mechanism To complete the extraction and insertion of the movable core, including slide, slider, cylinder, tilting bar, etc.
(5) Overflow system, Overflow discharge system to discharge gas and store cold metal residue, etc.
(6) Temperature control system Controls the temperature of the die casting mold, including cooling water and heating oil pipes, etc.
(7) Ejector mechanism to eject the die casting from the cavity, including the ejector bar, etc.
(8) Moving mold frame Connecting and fixing moving mold parts, including sleeve plate, support plate, etc.

The Design of Die Casting Mold:

Die design steps:
1. Die casting process analysis, including alloy, casting structure and die casting technology analysis.
2. Process scheme design, including parting surface, gate position, pouring and overflow system, number of cavities, core extraction scheme and number, die casting ejection scheme, die casting machine selection and other aspects to determine and set.
3. Pouring and overflow system design. Including process parameter determination, calculation of internal gate size, shape and size determination of pouring system and location and size calculation of exhaust tank slag bag.
4. Design of die casting mold structure. Including the design of the insert, cavity, core extraction, ejection, cooling water, heating pipeline, etc.
5. The design of general drawing of die-casting mold.
6. Design of die-casting mold parts.

die casting mold

The design of die-casting moulds should pay attention to the following points:

(1) To adopt an advanced and simple structure as much as possible to ensure stable and reliable action and daily maintenance and repair.
(2) To consider the modifiability of the casting system so that it can make the necessary modifications during the commissioning process.
(3) Reasonable selection of various tolerances, shrinkage and machining allowance to ensure reliable mold fit and required to die casting accuracy.
(4) The choice of suitable mold materials and reliable heat treatment process to ensure the service life of the die casting mold.
(5) Should have sufficient stiffness and strength, can withstand the clamping pressure and rising force, die-casting production process does not produce deformation.
(6) As far as possible, use standardized die-casting mold parts to improve the economy and interchangeability.
In the design of the mold, but also according to the projection area of the casting to calculate the total projection area of die-casting production, pressure injection ratio pressure, to choose the right tonnage of die-casting machine, the formula is as follows.
F rise force = 100 P injection ratio pressure × S projection area
F clamping force = F up force / K factor

Die casting mold processing process

The excellent processing process can effectively improve the processing efficiency and the die life to ensure the dimensional accuracy of die casting.

1、Processing process

The primary processing process of die-casting mold: examination of drawings → material preparation → processing → mold frame processing → mold core processing → electrode processing → mold parts processing → inspection → assembly → flying mold → test mold → production

2、Reasonable selection of forming inserts The life of forming insert basically represents the life of the whole mold, so the reasonable selection of materials and heat treatment is very critical. Generally, we choose 1.2343, Dievar, ADC3, PH13 and other heat-resistant mold steel. 3、Choose the suitable heat treatment method Material heat treatment method is generally by the material sales manufacturers for technical guidance or designated heat treatment plant, mainly for rough machining after vacuum quenching, finishing after stress relief treatment. 4、Surface heat treatment method The working conditions of aluminum die-casting mold are harsh, requiring high heat resistance, fatigue strength, thermal conductivity, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, impact toughness, red hardness and good mold release. However, only by the application of new mold materials and the necessary heat treatment process is difficult to meet the requirements of the mold, must be applied to the surface treatment of various surface treatment technology to achieve high efficiency, high precision and high life requirements of the mold. In recent years, a variety of die-casting mold surface treatments of new technologies continue to emerge, but in general, can be divided into three categories. (1) The traditional heat treatment process improvement technology.  (2) Surface modification technology, including surface heat expansion infiltration treatment, surface phase change strengthening, EDM strengthening technology, etc. (3) Coating technology.

What are the characteristics of high-quality die casting moulds?

1、The zinc alloy die-casting mold should be flexible, stable, accurate and reliable during the mold testing process.
2、The cooling water circuit and hydraulic oil circuit should be smooth and have no leakage.
3、 Mold exhaust good, metal liquid no splash phenomenon.
4、All parts of the mold that are required to be fixed must be fixed.
5、The slider movement should be smooth, and the mold opening position should be accurate and reliable.
6、No abnormal noise from the die ejector rod and standard ejector return.
7、No abnormality in the punching head and product ejection.
8、No cracking, deformation, product pieces off the die, etc.

V1 perfect die casting, die casting mold manufacturing solution

Understanding die casting moulds will make your die casting project more effortless. It will also help you save some time and money. But you need expert service to get the proper tooling for the best results. V1Diecast offers the best precision die casting services for custom metal parts, with quality tools, experts and an easy process.

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From V1Diecast, I’m a the marketing manager. I am familar with die casting parts and die casting technologies, including vacuum die casting, aluminium die casting, and related surface finishings. Ask for a quote for your ongoing or upcoming projects now!

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